Improvement in Millet Soaking by Way of Bubbled Cold Plasma Processed Air Exposure; Phytic Acid Reduction Cum Nutrient Analysis Concern

  • Lokeswari R Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Sharanyakanth P. S Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Mahendran R Centre of Excellence in Nonthermal Processing, Indian Institute of Food Processing Technology (IIFPT), Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India
Keywords: Pearl Millet, Plasma Processed Air, Plasma Bubbling, Soaking, Phytic Acid


Pearl millet is one of the high-grown and underutilized grain crops. It is confined to traditional foods due to its anti-nutritional and functional properties. The present study investigated the influence of plasma processed air bubbling and soaking on phytic acid content, total and HCl extractable iron, physicochemical, techno-functional, and pasting properties of pearl millet. Exposure of pearl millet to plasma processed air bubbling at 180 V with an airflow rate of 10 liters /h for 1 h and 2 h reduced phytic acid content by 60.66 % and 39.27 % respectively. Whereas soaking for 12 h reduced phytic acid by 21.6 % in contrast with the untreated sample. The total iron content reduced from 39.9 to 29.8 mg/100g and HCl extractable iron content increased from 12 % to 69.49 % with the given treatments. Obtained data were noticed with significant changes (p < 0.05) and are in line with its exposure to the selected variable treatments. This work points to the potentiality of plasma processed air pre-treatment in the food industry to improve nutrition and mineral availability accompanied by modifying pasting, techno-functional properties of pearl millet.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


K.S. Nithya, B. Ramachandramurty, V.V. Krishnamoorthy, Effect of processing methods on nutritional and anti-nutritional qualities of hybrid (COHCU-8) and traditional (C07) pearl millet varities of India, Journal of Biological Sciences, 7 (2007) 643–647.

K.O. Falade, T.A. Kolawole, Effect of γ-irradiation on colour, functional and physicochemical properties of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] cultivars, Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6 (2013) 2429–2438.

R. Krishnan, M.S. Meera, Pearl millet minerals: effect of processing on bioaccessibility, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(2018) 3362–3372.

A.M. Sokrab, I.A. Mohamed Ahmed, E.E. Babiker, Effect of fermentation on antinutrients, and total and extractable minerals of high and low phytate corn genotypes, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51 (2014) 2608–2615.

R. Thirumdas, R.R. Deshmukh, U.S. Annapure, Effect of low temperature plasma processing on physicochemical properties and cooking quality of basmati rice, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 31(2015) 83–90.

C. Sarangapani, R. Thirumdas, Y. Devi, Ajinkya Trimukhe, Rajendra R. Deshmukh, Uday S. Annapure, Effect of low-pressure plasma on physico-chemical and functional properties of parboiled rice flour, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 69 (2016) 482–489.

R. Thirumdas, A. Trimukhe, R.R. Deshmukh, U.S. Annapure, Functional and rheological properties of cold plasma treated rice starch, Carbohydrate Polymers, 157 (2017) 1723–1731.

S. Aparajhitha, R. Mahendran, Effect of plasma bubbling on free radical production and its subsequent effect on the microbial and physicochemical properties of Coconut Neera, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 58 (2019) 102230.

R. Zhou, R. Zhou, K. Prasad, Z. Fang, R. Speight, K. Bazaka, K. Ostrikov, Cold atmospheric plasma activated water as a prospective disinfectant: The crucial role of peroxynitrite. Green Chemistry, 20 (2018) 5276–5284.

N. Ertas, S. Turker, The role of soaking process on mineral HCl- Extractabilities, phytic acid content and trypsin inhibitor activity of common bean bulgur, Food Science and Technology Research, 18 (2012) 445–453.

R. Lokeswari, P. Sharanyakanth, R. Mahendran, Combination of air plasma bubbling and soaking in the reduction of phytic acid and improving free iron availability in pearl millet, International Journal of Chemical Studies, 9 (2021)1041–1045.

E.L. Wheeler, R. Ferrel, A method for Phytic Acid Determination in Wheat and Wheat Fractions, Cereal Chemistry, 48 (1971) 312–320.

A. Kumar, B.M. Chauhan, Effect of Phytic Acid on Protein Digestibility (In Vitro) and HCl-Extractability of Minerals in Pearl Millet Sprouts, Cereal chemistry, 70 (1993) 504–506.

AOAC, (2010) Official Methods of Analysis of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th Edition, Washington.

B.V. McCleary, P. Mc Geough, A comparison of polysaccharide substrates and reducing sugar methods for the measurement of endo-1,4-β-xylanase, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 177 (2015) 1152–1163.

S.E. Ramashia, E.T. Gwata, T.A. Anyasi, A.I.O. Jideani, some physical and functional properties of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) obtained in sub-Saharan Africa, Food Research International, 104 (2017) 110–118.

H. Kusumayanti, N.A. Handayani, H. Santosa, Swelling Power and Water Solubility of Cassava and Sweet Potatoes Flour, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23 (2015) 164–167.

A. Yıldırım, M.D. Oner, Electrical Conductivity, Water Absorption, Leaching, and Color Change of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) during Soaking with Ultrasound Treatment, International Journal of Food Properties, 18 (2015) 1359–1372.

H. Ji, F. Han, S. Peng, J. Yu, L. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, S. Li, Y. Chen, Behavioral Solubilization of Peanut Protein Isolate by Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma (ACP) Treatment, Food and Bioprocess Technology, 12 (2019) 2018–2027.

A. Agume, N. Njintang, C. Mbofung, Effect of Soaking and Roasting on the Physicochemical and Pasting Properties of Soybean Flour, Foods, 6 (2017).

M. Popescu, M. Totolin, C. Mihaela, Carmen Mihaela Tibirna, Anamaria Sdrobis, Tatjana Stevanovic, Cornelia Vasilea, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules Grafting of softwood kraft pulps fibers with fatty acids under cold plasma conditions, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 48 (2011) 326–335.

V. Handa, V. Kumar, A. Panghal, S. Suri, J. Kaur, Effect of soaking and germination on physicochemical and functional attributes of horse gram flour, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54 (2017) 4229–4239.

M. Obadi, K.X. Zhu, W. Peng, Abdellatief A. Sulieman, K. Mohammed, H.M. Zhou, Effects of ozone treatment on the physicochemical and functional properties of whole grain flour, Journal of Cereal Science, 81(2018) 127–132.

F. Zhu, Effect of ozone treatment on the quality of grain products, Food Chemistry, 264 (2018) 358–366.

Adewale O. Obadina, Christianah A. Arogbokun, Antonio O. Soares, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de Carvalho, Henriqueta Talita Barboza, Ifeoluwa O. Adekoya, Changes in nutritional and physico-chemical properties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Ex-Borno variety flour as a result of malting, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54 (2017) 4442–4451.

M. Obadi, K.X. Zhu, W. Peng, A.F. Ammar, H.M. Zhou, Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties of wheat proteins, Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 15 (2016) 2147–2154.

C. Godswill, V. Somtochukwu, C. Kate, The Functional Properties of Foods and Flours, International Journal of Advanced Academic Research, 5(2019) 2488–9849

M.R. Silveira, N.M. Coutinho, R.S. Rocha, J. Moraes, E.A. Esmerino, T.C. Pimentel, Monica Q. Freitas, Marcia C. Silva, Renata S.L. Raices, C. Senaka Ranadheera, Fábio O. Borges, Thatyane V. Fonteles, Roberto P.C. Neto, Maria Inês B. Tavares, Fabiano A.N. Fernandes, Sueli Rodriguesh, Adriano G. Cruz, Guava flavored whey-beverage processed by cold plasma: Physical characteristics, thermal behavior and microstructure, Food Research International, 119 (2019) 564–570.

R. Thirumdas, R.R. Deshmukh, U.S. Annapure, Effect of low temperature plasma on the functional properties of basmati rice flour, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53 (2016) 2742–2751.

S.K. Bhupender, B. Rajneesh, S.Y. Baljeet, Physicochemical, functional, thermal and pasting properties of starches isolated from pearl millet cultivars, International Food Research Journal, 20 (2013) 1555–1561.

How to Cite
R, L., P. S, S., & R, M. (2021). Improvement in Millet Soaking by Way of Bubbled Cold Plasma Processed Air Exposure; Phytic Acid Reduction Cum Nutrient Analysis Concern. Frontiers in Advanced Materials Research, 3(2), 1-16.

Views: Abstract : 44 | PDF : 24

Plum Analytics