Irrigation Water Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index and GIS Technique in Pondicherry Region, South India
The utility of groundwater, irrespective of its availability, is essential for mankind. The efficacy of the coastal aquifer’s groundwater quality for agriculture purpose in the Pondicherry region was gauged by their hydrochemistry. 44 groundwater samples were collected during 4 different seasons namely, pre-monsoon (PRM), southwest monsoon (SWM), northeast monsoon (NEM) and post-monsoon (POM). The samples were measured for physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, TDS, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, PO4, SO4 and NO3. The spatio temporal variations of EC indicates that the coastal groundwater were relatively saline except during PRM. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation is evaluated through various water quality parametrs such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Na%, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI). Na%, SAR, PI and EC values were spatially interporlated and integrated to determine the regions suitable for irrigation purpose. The study infers that the groundwater of the study area is suitable for irrigation except few samples’ locations along the western part, as they have attained an alarming stage and they are unsuitable for irrigation. Thus, proper management strategy for irrigation water source has to be developed and a preventive management practice to address this issue has to be implemented.
A.M. Al-Bassam, Y.A. Al-Rumikhani, Integrated hydrochemical method of water quality assessment for irrigation in arid areas: application to the Jilh aquifer, Saudi Arabia, Journal of African Earth Sciences, 36 (2003) 345–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-5362(03)00046-0
R.S. Ayers, D.W. Westcot, Water Quality for Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 29 (1985) 1-174.
L.A. Richards, Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils, Washington, US, 78 (1954) 154. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195408000-00012
M. Delbari, M. Amiri, M.B. Motlagh, Assessing groundwater quality for irrigation using indicator kriging method, Applied Water Science, 6 (2014) 371–381. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0230-6
A.J. Ahamed, S. Ananthakrishnan, K. Loganathan, K. Manikandan, Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation use in Alathur Block, Perambalur District, Tamilnadu, South India, Applied Water Science, 3 (2013) 763–771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-013-0124-z
Ali Gholami, Nooshin Shahinzadeh, Ali Afrous, Payvad Papan, An Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Agricultural Use (Case Study: Loor plain, Khouzestan, Iran. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences, 2 (2013) 890-894.
A.J. Ahamed, K. Loganathan, R. Jayakumar, Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater in Amaravathi river basin of Karur district, Tamil Nadu, South India, Sustainable Water Resources Management, 1 (2015) 273–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40899-015-0026-3
S. Pethaperumal, S. Chidambaram, M.V. Prasanna, V.N. Verma, K. Balaji, R. Ramesh, U. Karmegam, P. Paramaguru, A study on groundwater quality in the Pondicherry Region, Journal Eco-Chronicle, 3 (2008) 85-90.
R. Thilagavathi, S. Chidambaram, M.V. Prasanna, C. Thivya, C. Singaraja, A study on groundwater geochemistry and water quality in layered aquifers system of Pondicherry region, southeast India, Applied Water Science, 2 (2012) 253-269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-012-0045-2
Pethaperumal, Sivaraman and Chidambaram, Sabarathinam, Vijayaragavan, Kandasamy and Prasanna, Mohan Viswanathan, Anandavel, Kannan, Karmegam, Ulaganathan and Manivannan, Ramachandran, Anandhan, Paluchamy, Tirumalesh, Kesari, A Novel Approach for Groundwater Budgeting Using GIS in a Part of Pondicherry Region, India, Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2 (2010) 585-591. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2010.26067
R. Thilagavathi, S. Chidambaram, C. Thivya, M.V. Prasanna, S. Pethaperumal, K. Tirumalesh, A Study on the Behaviour of Total Carbon and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Groundwaters of Pondicherry Region, India, International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 07 (2014) 1537-1550.
R. Ramesh, R. Purvaja, A. SenthilVel, National Assessment of Shoreline Change: Puducherry Coast, NCSCM/MoEF Report, 1 (2011) 57.
R.M. Murali, M. Ankita, S. Amrita, P. Vethamony, Coastal vulnerability assessment of Puducherry coast, India, using the analytical hierarchical process, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 13 3(2013) 291–3311. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-3291-2013
CGWB (1999) Hydrogeological Framework for Urban Development of Bhopal City, Madhya Pradesh, Central Ground Water Board, North Central Region, Bhopal, India
R. Thilagavathi, S. Chidambaram, C. Thivya, K. Tirumalesh, S. Venkatramanan, S. Pethaperumal, M.V. Prasanna, N. Ganesh, Influence of variations in rainfall pattern on the hydrogeochemistry of coastal groundwater-an outcome of periodic observation, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26 (2019) 29173-29190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05962-w
A.W.W.A. Apha, (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington.
Chidambaram Sabarathinam, Harish Bhandary, Khaled Hadi, CHIDAM -A software for chemical interpretation of the dissolved ions in aqueous media, Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 13 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100496
S. Chidambaram, M.B.K. Prasad, M.V. Prasanna, R. Manivannan, P. Anandhan, Evaluation of Metal Pollution in Groundwater in the Industrialized Environs in and Around Dindigul, Tamilnadu, India, Water Quality, Exposure and Health, 7 (2015) 307–317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-014-0150-6
P.A. Burrough, R.A. McDonnell, C.D. Lloyd, (1998) Principles of geographical information systems, Oxford University Press, United Kingdom.
V.S. Adithya, S. Chidambaram, C. Thivya, R. Thilagavathi, M.V. Prasanna, M. Nepolian, N.Ganesh, A study on the impact of weathering in groundwater chemistry of a hard rock aquifer, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2073-3
Waqed Hameed, Al-Mussawi, Assessment of Groundwater Quality in UMM ER Radhuma Aquifer (Iraqi Western Desert) by Integration between Irrigation Water Quality Index and GIS, Journal of Babylon University/Engineering Sciences, 22 (2014) 207-2017.
A.W. Hounslow, (1995) Water quality data - analysis and interpretation, CRC press, United States.
C. Singaraja, S. Chidambaram, N. Jacob, A study on the influence of tides on the water table conditions of the shallow coastal aquifers, Applied Water Science, 8, 11 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0654-5
M.V. Prasanna, S. Chidambaram, A.S. Hameed, K. Srinivasamoorthy, Study of evaluation of groundwater in Gadilam basin using hydrogeochemical and isotope data. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 168 (2010) 63–90. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1092-5
L.V. Wilcox, (1955) Classification and use of irrigation water, U.S. Geological Department Agriculture, Washington.
L.V. Wilcox, (1984) The quality of water for irrigation use, US department of Agricultural Technical Bulletin,Washington.
Ramakrishna, (1998) Ground water, Hand book, India, 556.
R. Collins, A. Jenkins, The impact of agricultural land use on stream chemistry in the Middle Hills of the Himalayas, Nepal, Journal of Hydrology, 185 (1996) 71–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)03008-5
A. Saleh, F. Al-Ruwaih, M. Shehata, Hydrogeochemical processes operating within the main aquifers of Kuwait, Journal of Arid Environments, 42 (1999) 95–209. https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.1999.0511
A. Sutharsiny, S. Pathmarajah, M. Thushyanthy, V. Meththika, Characterization of Irrigation Water Quality of Chunnakam Aquifer in Jaffna Peninsula, Tropical Agricultural Research, 23 (2012) 237 – 248. https://doi.org/10.4038/tar.v23i3.4661
S. Singh, N.J. Raju, C. Ramakrishna, Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Domestic and Irrigation Use in Parts of the Chandauli-Varanasi Region, Uttar Pradesh, India, Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 07 (2015) 572–587. https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2015.77046
L.D. Doneen, (1964) notes on water quality in agriculture, water science and engineering, Department of Water Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis
Copyright (c) 2021 Thilagavathi Rajendran, Chidambaram Sabarathinam, Pradeep Kamaraj, Mohan Viswanathan Prasanna, Mahalakshmi Mathivanan, Meenu Ghai, Dheeraj Kumar Singh, Ramanathan A.L
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Views: Abstract : 33 | PDF : 34