Irrigation Water Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index and GIS Technique in Pondicherry Region, South India

  • Thilagavathi Rajendran Department of Earth Sciences, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Chidambaram-608002, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Chidambaram Sabarathinam Research scientist, Water Research Center, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait.
  • Pradeep Kamaraj Department of Applied Geology, School of Applied Natural Sciences (SoANS), Adama Science & Technology University, Adama 1888, Ethiopia.
  • Mohan Viswanathan Prasanna Department of Applied Geology, School of Engineering and Science, Curtin University, CDT 250, 98009 Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Mahalakshmi Mathivanan School of Civil Engineering, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur-613402, Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Meenu Ghai Kishan Lal Public College, Rewari, Haryana, India
  • Dheeraj Kumar Singh Grass Roots Research and Creation India (P) Ltd, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • Ramanathan A.L School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 India.
Keywords: Groundwater, Irrigation, Water Quality, Spatial Index, Overlay Analysis


The utility of groundwater, irrespective of its availability, is essential for mankind. The efficacy of the coastal aquifer’s groundwater quality for agriculture purpose in the Pondicherry region was gauged by their hydrochemistry. 44 groundwater samples were collected during 4 different seasons namely, pre-monsoon (PRM), southwest monsoon (SWM), northeast monsoon (NEM) and post-monsoon (POM). The samples were measured for physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, TDS, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, HCO3, PO4, SO4 and NO3. The spatio temporal variations of EC indicates that the coastal groundwater were relatively saline except during PRM. The suitability of groundwater for irrigation is evaluated through various water quality parametrs such as Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, Na%, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) and permeability index (PI). Na%, SAR, PI and EC values were spatially interporlated and integrated to determine the regions suitable for irrigation purpose. The study infers that the groundwater of the study area is suitable for irrigation except few samples’ locations along the western part, as they have attained an alarming stage and they are unsuitable for irrigation. Thus, proper management strategy for irrigation water source has to be developed and a preventive management practice to address this issue has to be implemented.


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How to Cite
Rajendran, T.; Sabarathinam, C.; Kamaraj, P.; Prasanna, M. V.; Mathivanan, M.; Ghai, M.; Singh, D. K.; A.L, R. Irrigation Water Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index and GIS Technique in Pondicherry Region, South India. ijceae 2021, 3, 36-50.

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