SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Route in Wastewater and Possible Solutions
In the view of present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic a study on the presence of this novel virus in wastewater treatment facilities is proposed. Other coronavirus species are known to survive in wastewater for days to weeks. Present data also shows that SARS-CoV-2 can be present in waste product generated by infected humans. This generated waste can be source of this virus to wastewater stream and being an enveloped virus can survive for longer period, which can be aerosolized and act as secondary transmission source. Here we propose this pathway of transmission should be rigorously studied, especially in countries like India, where minimum hygiene and sanitation can be tough to achieve because of high population density. We further propose to look into different disinfection methods, which can be most useful to deactivate this lethal virus
L.C. Gideon III, S. Woodard, A. Zubrod, (2020) Social Psychological Measurements of COVID-19: Coronavirus Perceived Threat, Government Response, Impacts, and Experiences Questionnaires. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/z2x9a
B. Kristian, (2020) Coronavirus and the end of the conservative temperament, The Week, Washington.
L.S. Hung, The SARS Epidemic in Hong Kong: What Lessons have we Learned?, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96 (2003) 374-378. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F014107680309600803
G. La Rosa, M. Fratini, S. Della Libera, M. Iaconelli, M. Muscillo, Emerging and potentially emerging viruses in water environments, Ann Ist Super Sanità, 48 (2012) 397–406. DOI: 10.4415/ANN_12_04_07
Y. Yang, F. Peng, R. Wang, K. Guan, T. Jiang, G. Xu, J. Sun, C. Chang, The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China, Journal of Autoimmunity, 109. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102434
World Health Organization, (2020) Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) situation report, World Health Organization.
W.K. Leung, K.F. To, P.K.S. Chan, H.L.Y. Chan, A.K.L. Wu, N. Lee, K.Y. Yuen, J.J.Y. Sung, Enteric involvement of severe acute respiratory syndrome - Associated coronavirus infection, Gastroenterology, 125 (2003) 1011-1017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gastro.2003.08.001
M.J. Robinson, Loeffelholz, B.A. Pinsky, (2016) Respiratory Viruses, Clinical Virology Manual, 255–276. https://doi.org/10.1128/9781555819156.ch19
L. Casanova, W.A. Rutala, D.J. Weber, M.D. Sobsey, Survival of surrogate coronaviruses in water, Water Research, 43 (2009) 1893–1898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.02.002
T.T. Fong, E.K. Lipp,. Enteric Viruses of Humans and Animals in Aquatic Environments: Health Risks, Detection, and Potential Water Quality Assessment Tools, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 69 (2005) 357–371. https://doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.69.2.357-371.2005
X.W. Wang, J.S. Li, T.K. Guo, B. Zhen, Q.X. Kong, B. Yi, Z. Li, N. Song, M. Jin, W.J. Xiao, X.M. Zhu, C.Q. Gu, J. Yin, W. Wei, W. Yao, C. Liu, J.F. Li, G.R. Ou, M.N. Wang, T.Y. Fang, G.J. Wang, Y.H. Qiu, H.H. Wu, F.H. Chao, J.W. Li,. Concentration and detection of SARS coronavirus in sewage from Xiao Tang Shan Hospital and the 309th Hospital, Journal of Virological Methods, 128 (2005) 156–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.03.022.
World Health Organization, (2006) Sickle-cell anaemia Report by the Secretariat, World Health Organization Fifty-Ninth World Health Assembly.
B.S. Choudri, Y. Charabi, Health effects associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal, Water Environment Research, 91 (2019) 976-983. https://doi.org/10.1002/wer.1157
V. Naddeo, H. Liu, Correction: Editorial Perspectives: 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): what is its fate in urban water cycle and how can the water research community respond?, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 6 (2020) 1213–1216. https://dx.doi.org/10.1039/D0EW90015J
D. O’Bannon, (2019) Women in Water Quality: Investigations by Prominent Female Engineers, Springer Nature, Switzerland.
S. Chattopadhyay, S. Taft, (2018) Exposure Pathways to High- Consequence Pathogens in the Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.14738.15043
AWQC, 2008. Pathogens in Stormwater. Australian Water Quality Centre, Report Prepared by P Monis for the NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change and the Sydney Metropolitan Catchment Management Authority.
Council, E.N.-M.M., Environment, undefined, 2009, undefined, n.d. NHMRC. Australian Guidelines for water recycling, managing health and environmental risks, vol 2C: Managed Aquifer Recharge.
M, Schoen, N. Ashbolt, M. Jahne, J.G.M. Jay Garland, Risk-based enteric pathogen reduction targets for non-potable and direct potable use of roof runoff, stormwater, and greywater, Microbial Risk Analysis, 5 (2017) 32-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mran.2017.01.002
P.M. Gundy, C.P. Gerba, I.L. Pepper, Survival of Coronaviruses in Water and Wastewater, Food and Environmental Virology, 1 (2009) 10–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-008-9001-6
A. Hundesa, S. Bofill-Mas, Carlos Maluquer de Motesa, Jesus Rodriguez-Manzano, Alex Bachb, Maribel Casas, Rosina Girones, Development of a quantitative PCR assay for the quantitation of bovine polyomavirus as a microbial source-tracking tool, Journal of Virological Methods, 163 (2010) 385-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2009.10.029
Lee, Seul-Yi, Soo-Jin Park, TiO2 photocatalyst for water treatment applications, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 19 (2013) 1761-1769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.07.012
W. Ahmed, K. Bibby, A. Bivins, J. O’brien, N. Angel, J. Edson, J.W. O’brien, P.M. Choi, M. Kitajima, S.L. Simpson, J. Li, B. Tscharke, R. Verhagen, W.J.M. Smith, J. Zaugg, L. Dierens, P. Hugenholtz, K.V. Thomas, J.F. Mueller, (2020) First confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater in Australia: A proof of concept for the wastewater surveillance of COVID-19 in the community Optimising analytical methods for evaluating the occurrence of chlorinated paraffins in Australia View project Microbial Source Tracking in Water View project First confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater in Australia: A proof of concept for the wastewater surveillance of COVID-19 in the community, Science of The Total Environment, 728 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138764
W. Lodder, A.de Roda Husman, SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater: potential health risk, but also data source, The Lancet Gastroenterol & Hepatol, 5 (2020) 533-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30087-X
F. Wu, A. Xiao, J. Zhang, X. Gu, W. Lee, K. Kauffman, W. Hanage, M. Matus, N. Ghaeli, N. Endo, C. Duvallet, K. Moniz, T.B. Erickson, P. Chai, J. Thompson, E. Alm, (2020a.) SARS-CoV-2 titers in wastewater are higher than expected from clinically confirmed cases, medRxiv, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.05.20051540.
A. Lee, J.W Elam, S.B. Darling, Membrane materials for water purification: design, development, and application, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 2 (2016) 17–42. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5EW00159E
M. Mulder, Basic Principles of Membrane Technology, Zeitschrift Für Phys. Chemie. 72 (1998) 564.
V. Polisetti, P. Ray, PAN-PVDF blend ultrafiltration membranes: Preparation, characterization and performance evaluation, International Journal of Advance Research in Engineering, Science & Technology, 4 (2017) 10–22.
V. Veerababu, B.B. Vyas, P.S. Singh, P. Ray, Limiting thickness of polyamide-polysulfone thin-film-composite nanofiltration membrane, Desalination, 346 (2014) 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2014.05.007
Copyright (c) 2021 Veerababu P, Banajarani Panda, Dhiraj Kr Singh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Views: Abstract : 36 | PDF : 26